Bilateral actors timeline of diplomatic efforts

15 April

Egypt and Saudi Arabia called for an emergency meeting at the level of permanent representatives at the Arab League to discuss the situation in Sudan.

16 April

Egypt’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry held phone call with the Chairperson of AU Commission to discuss developments in Sudan and provide update to the Chairperson on the emergency meeting of the Arab League that was convened earlier on the same day.

18 April

US Secretary of State spoke to the leaders of both SAF and RSF and underscored the urgent need for a ceasefire.

21 April

US Secretary of State welcomed the announcement made by SAF and RSF on the intention to abide by a three-day Eid al-Fitr ceasefire.

22 April

South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit held telephone conversation with SAF and RSF leaders and expressed readiness of the High-Level IGAD delegation to undertake a mission to Sudan at the earliest opportunity available.

24 April

US brokered a three-day nationwide ceasefire between the two forces effective as of midnight 24 April.

28 April

Ethiopian Prime Minister held phone conversation with the two leadership of SAF and RSF on the need to settle their differences amicably.

2 May

South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit announced that the leaders of SAF and RSF agreed ‘in principle’ for a seven-day truce from 4 May to 11 May, as well as to name their representatives to peace talks.

4 May

President of the USA issued an executive order on imposing sanctions on certain persons destabilizing Sudan and undermining the goal of democratic transition.

 Egypt’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry held phone calls with SAF and RSF leaders, calling for immediate ceasefire.

5 May

President Salva kiir

  • expressed his concerns over ‘numerous instances of violations of the ceasefire he brokered
  • Requested the two parties to send their representatives to an ‘agreed venue’ to commence the peace talks

6 May

Saudi Arabia and the US facilitated direct ‘pre-negotiation talks’ between the representatives of SAF and RSF in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The Somali Federal Government ‘warmly welcomed’ the start of talks between SAF and RSF in Jeddah.

8 May

The South African government:

  • welcomed the start of the pre-negotiation talks between the SAF and RSF
  • reiterated the ‘centrality of the African Union and IGAD in the pre-negotiation and subsequent talks’
  • stressed the importance of a civilian government for Sudan and the wider region
 Egypt’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry met Chadian transitional President, Mahamat Idriss Deby, to discuss ways of ending the fighting in Sudan.

9 May

Egypt’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry met South Sudan’s President and Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation to discuss the consequences of the Sudan conflict on both countries and coordinate efforts to end the conflict.

11 May

The pre-negotiation talks facilitated by Saudi Arabia and the US culminated in the signing of  a declaration of commitment to Protect Civilians of Sudan between SAF and RSF in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

12 May

Egypt welcomed the signing of Jeddah Declaration of Commitment to Protect the Civilians of Sudan.

15 May

South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir dispatched special envoy to brief the leaders of Egypt, Kenya, Uganda, Djibouti, and Ethiopia on the ongoing diplomatic efforts and explore next steps.

20 May

Saudi Arabia and US facilitated the signing of a seven-day Agreement on a Short-Term Ceasefire and Humanitarian Arrangements between SAF and RSF in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

23 May

The facilitators of the Jeddah ceasefire agreement (Saudi Arabia and the US) noted with concern the violations of the agreement by both sides.

26 May

Saudi Arabia and the US noted improved respect for the ceasefire agreement following serious violations of 24 May.

28 May

Saudi Arabia and the US urged the warring parties to extend the ceasefire, noting that the 20 May ceasefire was ‘imperfectly observed’.

29 May

Saudi Arabia and the US facilitated the signing of an agreement for a five-day extension to the 20 May Agreement between SAF and RSF in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

1 June

Saudi Arabia and the US announced a suspension of the Jeddah talks citing the ‘repeated serious violations’ of the 20 May short-term ceasefire and  the extension to the ceasefire by the warring parties.

The US Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctioned military-affiliated companies ‘fuelling both sides of the conflict in Sudan’.

US also announced economic sanctions and visa restrictions against actors perpetuating the violence, and released an updated Business Advisory on Sudan.

9 June

Saudi Arabia and the US announced that the representatives of SAF and RSF agreed to a 24-hour countrywide ceasefire beginning on 10 June. The facilitators threatened to adjourn the Jeddah Talks if the warring parties fail to observe the ceasefire.

11 June

Noting the reduced fighting during the ceasefire, Saudi Arabia and the US expressed readiness to reconvene formal Talks in Jeddah on condition that the warring parties show commitment to uphold their obligations under the Jeddah Declaration to Protect the Civilians of Sudan.

17 June

Saudi Arabia and the US brokered a new 72-hour ceasefire between SAF and RSF, effective starting from 18 June until 21 June. Like in the previous ceasefire, the facilitators threatened to adjourn the Jeddah Talks if the parties fail to observe the ceasefire.

8 July

President Isaias Afwerki of Eritrea and Gen. Malik Agar, Vice President of the Transitional Sovereign Council of Sudan, convened in Asmara with the primary focus of their discussion on the ongoing situation in Sudan, on the prospects of ending the conflict, and Eritrea's role in resolving the conflict.

12 July

The UK government imposes sanctions on three corporate entities tied to the Sudanese Army and RSF to urge conflicting parties to partake in peace negotiations and enable the delivery of humanitarian assistance.

15 July

After a prolonged suspension of peace talks facilitated by Saudi Arabia and the United States, representatives from the Sudanese Army and RSF have reconvened in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to resume talks.

28 September

During their encounter in Moscow, South Sudan's Kiir, and Russia’s Putin discussed matters concerning peace and security in Africa and agreed to cooperate in resolving the conflict in Sudan.

9 October

President Salva Kiir of South Sudan engaged with French lawmakers to discuss the situation in Sudan and how to resolve the conflict. Christophe Marion, the head of the French parliamentary caucus, conveyed his belief that South Sudan could serve as a stabilizing entity, potentially facilitating peace in Sudan and bringing stability to the region.

10 October

South Sudan's President Salva Kiir wrote to Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni about the Sudan conflict and regional efforts to resolve the conflict and bring peace, urging an extraordinary IGAD Heads of State summit.

12 October

  • Osman Saleh, the Eritrean Foreign Minister, met in Cairo with his Egyptian counterpart, Sameh Shoukri, to deliberate on the continuous efforts to resolve the conflict. Their talks primarily focused on facilitating peace dialogue between the conflicting parties and ending the crisis.
  • South Sudan's President Salva Kiir and Norwegian Special Envoy (to Sudan & South Sudan) Jon Anton Johnson discussed the conflict in Sudan. President Kiir emphasized his government's support for peace dialogue in Sudan and briefed on his efforts, notably through IGAD and other initiatives, to resolve the conflict in Sudan.

26 October

For two days, leaders of the signatories of Juba Peace Agreement convene in Juba with the objective of ending the current war and implement the peace accord in Sudan. At the conclusion of the meeting Salva Kiir, the president of South Sudan, has urged the political leaders of Sudan who signed the 2020 peace agreement to maintain Sudan's unity and sovereignty.

13 November

The Kenyan President William Ruto meet with the Sudanese General Abdel-Fattah Al Burhan, head of the Transitional Sovereignty Council of Sudan in Nairobi. The two leaders:

  • Discussed on the recent security situation in Sudan and the region.
  • Reviewed the status of ongoing peace initiatives (the Jeddah and IGAD peace processes).
  • Underscored the urgent need to find a solution to the conflict in Sudan, and to work towards a cessation of hostilities.
  • Recognize the slow progress of Jeddah peace process and the urgency to accelerate the process towards cessation of hostilities and humanitarian assistance.
  • Agreed on the need to convene an urgent IGAD summit to set conditions for a broader peace process.

27 December

The Ugandan President Museveni and RSF leader Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo convened in Kampala and discussed the recent developments in Sudan, and how to end the war. Dagalo outlined his vision for negotiation, war cessation, and Sudan's reconstruction, emphasizing commitment to the December 9, 2023, IGAD’s heads of state and government meeting held in Djibouti.

28 December

The Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed met with RSF leader Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo in Addis Ababa to discuss the ongoing crisis and conflict resolution efforts. His visit coincided with the postponed meeting (it was postponed to early January 2024) with the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) Commander al-Burhan in Djibouti.

1 January 2024

In a statement on Sudan's 68th anniversary of independence, the US Secretary of State Anthony Blinken expressed deep concern over the war between the RSF and SAF, leading to war crimes, displacement, food insecurity, and a collapsing healthcare system. The U.S. urges the RSF and SAF to end the violent war and restore civilian governance, standing with the Sudanese people to achieve peace, security, and prosperity in the year 2024.

3 January 2024
4 January 2024

RSF Commander Dagalo met with South African President Cyril Ramaphosa in Pretoria. They discussed Sudan's ongoing war, addressing its root causes, extensive damage, and civilian displacement. Dagalo briefed Ramaphosa on efforts for peace through Jeddah and IGAD, emphasizing the commitment to cease hostilities despite challenges. Recognizing South Africa's pivotal role in Africa, Dagalo sought Ramaphosa's assistance in resolving the crisis and achieving security, stability, and lasting peace in Sudan. President Ramaphosa expressed South Africa’s support for the imminent face to face dialogue between General Dagalo and General Burhan and reiterated the need for an immediate ceasefire, and the dialogue towards permanent cessation of hostilities.

5 January 2024

RSF leader, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, met with Rwandan President Paul Kagame as part of a regional tour to seek international support for Sudan's peace process. Dagalo briefed Kagame on Sudan's political and security situation, highlighting ongoing peace initiatives. Kagame reaffirmed Rwanda's commitment to Sudan's peace process, emphasizing the importance of a political solution to alleviate Sudanese people's suffering and restore stability.

15 January 2024

South Sudan offered to host a mediation process between warring parties in Sudan and restore peace in the announcement made by James Pitia Morgan, South Sudan's Minister of Foreign Affairs.

21 February 2024

During her travel to Addis Ababa in connection with the African Union Summit, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Molly Phee, accompanied by USAID Assistant Administrator for Africa Monde Muyangwa, Special Envoy for the Horn of Africa Mike Hammer and Ambassador to Sudan John Godfrey, held a series of meetings focused on addressing Sudan’s continuing conflict and humanitarian crisis.

23 February 2024

US condemned the obstruction of humanitarian assistance and closing of civic space in Sudan.

26 February 2024

US Secretary of State, Antony J. Blinken, announced the appointment of Tom Perriello as US Special Envoy for Sudan.

The Special Envoy has the role to:

  • Coordinate the US Policy on Sudan;
  • Advance efforts to end the hostilities;
  • Secure unhindered humanitarian access;
  • Support the Sudanese people as they seek to fulfill their aspirations for freedom, peace and justice;
  • Empower Sudanese civilian leaders;
  • Drive US engagement with partners to forge a united approach to stop the conflict;
  • Prevent further atrocities; and
  • Promote accountability for crimes already committed.