UN timeline of diplomatic efforts

15 April

UNSC President, Russian Federation, expressed deep concern over the military clash between SAF and RSF and urged the parties to immediately cease hostilities.

Head of UNITAMS and SRSG Volker Perthes:

  • condemned the eruption of fighting
  • reached out to both SAF and RSF for immediate cessation of hostilities

16 April

UN Secretary-General condemned the death and injuries of civilians, including death of three staff of WFP in North Darfur.

SRSG Volker Perthes condemned the attack on UN staff and humanitarian assets in Darfur in North Darfur.

SRSG Volker Perthes announced the agreement of the leadership of the two parties to the proposal by the SRSG Perthes and the Trilateral Mechanism for temporary humanitarian pause on 16 April.

17 April

SRSG Volker Perthes expressed extreme disappointment over the failure of the two forces to fully honour the commitment they made for a temporary humanitarian pause in fighting.

UN Security Council discussed the situation in Sudan ‘under any other business’.

20 April

UN Secretary-General spoke to the reporters on Sudan, at the UN Security Council stakeout, appealing for a three-day ceasefire, marking the Eid al-Fitr celebrations.

25 April

UN Security Council convened for an open briefing at the request of UK, the penholder on the file of Sudan.

26 April

SRSG Volker Perthes expressed deep concern over reports of violence in El Geneina (West Darfur) that appeared to be taking inter-communal dimensions.

6 May

The Trilateral Mechanism welcomed the Saudi-American initiative to facilitate the technical talks between the representatives of SAF and RSF in Jeddah.

11 May

UN Security Council held closed consultations on Sudan, upon the request of UK, the penholder on the file, to discuss the deteriorating humanitarian and security situations in the country.

The Trilateral Mechanism welcomed the signing of a Declaration of Commitment to protect the civilians of Sudan by SAF and RSF.

2 June

The UN Security Council, in a Press Statement :

  • strongly condemned all attacks on civilians, UN and associated personnel and humanitarian actors, as well as civilian objects, medical personnel and facilities, and the looting of humanitarian supplies
  • urged the parties to immediately cease hostilities, facilitate humanitarian access, establish a permanent ceasefire arrangement, and resume the process towards reaching a lasting, inclusive, and democratic political settlement in Sudan
  • reaffirmed their firm support to African leadership, and noted the AU Roadmap for the Resolution of the Conflict in Sudan
  • welcomed the AU’s work to establish an Expanded Mechanism and Core Group
  • welcomed the 11 May Jeddah Declaration as well as the 20 May ceasefire
  • expressed concern over the impact of the conflict on neighbouring countries
  • underlined that the Juba Peace Agreement (JPA) signed on 3 October 2020 remains binding for all its signatories and must be implemented in full, in particular its provisions on a permanent ceasefire in Darfur

15 June

UNITAMS strongly condemned the killing of Governor of West Darfur in El Geneina, Mr. Khamis Abdullah, who was a signatory of the Juba Peace Agreement.

26 June

UNITAMS expressed grave concern over the violence in Kurmuk locality of the Blue Nile Region following the violence that erupted between the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/North (SPLM/N) - Al Hilu, and the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) on 25 and 26 June 2023.

4&7 July

The Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) to the African Union (AU) and Head of the UNOAU, Parfait Onanga-Ayanga, conferred with European Ambassadors based in Addis Ababa. They discussed the Jeddah peace process shortcomings, cautioned the proliferation of peace initiatives, and underscored the mediation roles of the AU and IGAD.

11 October

The UN Human Rights Council Decided to establish an independent international fact-finding mission with a team of three to investigate alleged human rights and international humanitarian law violations in Sudan's war. The resolution was approved by 19 favors, 16 objections, and 12 abstentions.

16 October 

A UN expert expressed concern about the risk of recruitment and use of children by warring parties since the onset of hostilities in Sudan.

16 November

Assistant Secretary-General for Africa in the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs and Peace Operations (DPPA-DPO) Martha Ama Akyaa Pobee gave the following remarks to the UN Security Council:

  • Welcomed the resumption of peace talks in Jeddah on 29 October.
  • Coordinated regional and international leverage and reinforced linkages to ongoing civilian initiatives will be essential to strengthen the peace talks and the likelihood of further progress.
  • The Statement of Commitments adopted by the parties in Jeddah on 7 November is an important first step towards addressing the needs of the Sudanese people.
  • Welcomed the launch of the Humanitarian Forum on 13 November, hopeful that it will facilitate the implementation of humanitarian commitments made in Jeddah.
  • Welcomed the initiatives by civilian actors to coalesce around a common peace platform.
  • Welcomed the consultative meeting of signatories to the Juba Peace Agreement, convened in Juba on 24 and 25 October, and appreciated the Government of South Sudan for hosting this meeting.
  • A joined-up mediation approach will be essential to not only increase pressure on the parties but also ensure that ceasefire and civilian political tracks are harmonized and integrated.
  • Diplomatic efforts should also include regional states that can exercise tangible leverage on the warring parties to end the war.
  • The Secretary-General initiated a UNITAMS strategic review led by Ian Martin. This aims to tailor the mission's mandate to Sudan's current context for enhanced support in achieving peace and stability. Mr. Martin will consult extensively with Sudanese authorities, civil society, regional organizations, Member States, and relevant UN entities.

21 November

United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres appointed Ramtane Lamamra of Algeria Personal Envoy for Sudan

13 December

United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres has expressed support for the IGAD summit's positive developments in Sudan. Guterres pledged the UN's commitment to back African partners' mediation efforts and collaborate with stakeholders for a peaceful resolution. Guterres remains deeply concerned about the parties' reluctance to cease hostilities, emphasizing his Special Envoy's (Ramtane Lamamra) readiness for peace efforts.

18 December

The UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) President, Václav Bálek appointed Mohamed Chande Othman (Tanzania), Joy Ezeilo (Nigeria), and Mona Rishmawi (Jordan/Switzerland) as members of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission for Sudan. Mr. Othman will serve as Chair of the Fact-Finding Mission, which was established in October 2023 with the mandate:

  • To investigate and establish the facts, circumstances and root causes of all alleged human rights violations and abuses and violations of international humanitarian law, including those committed against refugees, and related crimes in the context of the ongoing armed conflict that began on 15 April 2023.

21 December

The UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Alice Wairumu Nderitu, urged all warring parties, particularly SAF and RSF, to immediately cease hostilities and stop targeting civilians. The Advisor expressed grave concern over escalating violence in Wad Madani, Al Jazirah State, El Fasher, North Darfur, and Nyala in South Darfur.

4 January 2024

The UN Relief Chief Martin Griffiths, the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, urged the international community to take decisive and swift action to end Sudan's nearly nine-month civil war. Griffiths expressed his concern regarding the hostilities in Al-Jazirah state and emphasizing the need for immediate actions in 2024 to address the evolving humanitarian crisis, safeguard civilians, and bring an end to the ongoing conflict.

11 January 2024

The RSF leader Hemetti spoke with UN Secretary-General Guterres via telephone call to discuss on the conflict and bring peace in Sudan. Hemetti welcomed the appointment of Lamamra as the UN Secretary-General’s Personal Envoy to Sudan and committed to cooperating with UN agencies to address humanitarian conditions.

14 January 2024

Ramtane Lamamra, the UN Secretary-General's Personal Envoy to Sudan, made his first visit to Sudan, meeting with SAF leader Lieutenant General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan. Lamamra affirmed his dedication to collaborating with all stakeholders for a peaceful resolution, noting he gained valuable insights into ending the conflict and initiating a peace process in Sudan.

18 January 2024

The UN Fact-Finding Mission on Sudan commenced its work, urging warring parties to cease conflict, protect civilians and ensure accountability. The mission was established in October 2023 by the UN Human Rights Council through a resolution A/HRC/RES/54/2, with the aim to investigate all alleged human rights violations since the outbreak of the conflict on 15 April 2023.